Monday, December 21, 2009

The Anaerobic Aspects of Resistance Training

The Anaerobic Aspects of Resistance Training
By Bruce W Craig
NSCA Hot Topics Series

Resistance training has become the common term to describe exercise involving any form of resistance, be it free weights, machines, elastic bands, pulley systems, or body weight as used in some exercise equipment. The lifting of weights comes under this broad umbrella and can be separated into a variety of categories (11) but most weight exercises can be performed for a variety of sets and repetitions and resistances, with somewhat different outcomes. There are some basic differences between training for strength and hypertrophy (muscle size) compared to training for power (explosive strength) which is a major component of most sports. However, all forms of resistance training rely on anaerobic metabolism for their energy needs. The purpose of this brief review is to explain how anaerobic metabolism supplies that energy and how these forms of training differ in their usage.

The Use of Sport Psychology to Improve Sport Performance

The Use of Sport Psychology to Improve Sport Performance
Daniel Kirschenbaum, Ph.D. Director, Center for Behavioral Medicine, Professor, Northwestern University Medical School Chicago, Illinois; Sean McCann, Ph.D. U.S. Olympic Committee, Sport Science and Technology Division, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Andrew Meyers, Ph.D. University of Memphis, Department of Psychology, Memphis, Tennessee; Jean Williams, Ph.D. University of Arizona, Department of Exercise & Sport Science, Tucson, Arizona

Sport psychology is the science of behavior applied to exercise and sport participation. Increasing numbers of athletes and coaches are using sport psychologists to help them gain a personal and competitive edge--to manage stress and anxiety more effectively, improve concentration and motivation, increase confidence, and promote better communication. This field has been percolating for 70 years, yet many people still think of it as commonsensical mind games. The Gatorade Sports Science Institute convened a panel of four of the leading experts on sport psychology to help clarify the meaning of this important discipline, describe its recent history, and project its future.

Proper Nutrition for Athletes: The Missing Link

Proper Nutrition for Athletes: The Missing Link
By Nancy Clark
From J Exerc Sci Fit, Vol 6, No 2, 130–134, 2008
Nutrition should be an integral part of an athlete’s training program. Yet, in the United States, American athletes and fitness exercisers alike commonly report that they do not eat as well as they should; they admit that nutrition is their missing link. Consequently, they may fail to attain the most benefits from their training programs and their competitive efforts.

The purpose of this paper is to highlight the sports nutrition errors commonly made by American athletes who live in a culture where food is considered “fattening”, eating-on-the-run is the norm, and fast foods are a common alternative to home-cooked meals. Given the rapidly changing food culture in China, this information may help Chinese athletes avoid making the same nutritional mistakes.

Watch What You Say

Watch What You Say
By Nick Dixon
Volunteering to coach youth sports can be one of the most rewarding experiences in your life. It is a privilege to spend time teaching, coaching and mentoring youngsters in one of the most critical stages of their mental and physical development. Many kids do not have positive role models in their life. Many kids do not get the attention and the discipline that they need and desire. The main thing I want to discus today is the importance of thinking before you speak and the fact that your words greatly affect the self esteem of your players. Many coaches fail to remember that what a coach says can have long term positive or negative effects on a player. All youth coaches should remember these points regardless of which sport that they coach.

Basic Principles for Improving Sports Performance

Basic Principles for Improving Sports Performance
By David R. Lamb, Ph.D. Exercise Physiology Laboratory, Sport and Exercise Science Faculty, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH , Chairman,
Gatorade Sports Science Institute

1. For most sports, the top competitor is generally the one who can appropriately sustain the greatest power output to overcome resistance or drag.
2. It is not sufficient for championship performance to simply have the ability to produce great power. The champion must be able to sustain power output in an efficient and skillful manner for the duration of the competition.
3. During maximal exercise lasting a few seconds, the anaerobic breakdown of phosphocreatine and glycogen in muscles can provide energy at rates many times greater than can be supplied by the aerobic breakdown of carbohydrate and fat. However, this high rate of anaerobic energy production cannot be sustained for more than about 20 seconds.
4. For exercise lasting more than a few minutes, an athlete who has a high lactate threshold, that is, one who can produce a large amount of energy aerobically without a major accumulation of lactic acid in the blood, will be better able to sustain a higher rate of energy expenditure than will a competitor who has a lower lactate threshold.
5. A high level of mechanical efficiency, which is the ratio of the mechanical power output to the total energy expended to produce that power, is vital if an athlete is to make the most of his or her sustainable rate of energy expenditure. Mechanical efficiency depends upon the extent to which the athlete can recruit slow-twitch muscle fibers, which are more efficient at converting chemical energy into muscle contraction than are fast-twitch fibers.
6. Neuromuscular skill is also critical to mechanical efficiency because the more skillful athlete will activate only those muscle fibers required to produce the appropriate movements. Extraneous muscle contractions require more energy expenditure but do not contribute to effective power output.

Essentials for World Class Coaching

So you want to be the best? Essentials for World Class Coaching
By Wayne Goldsmith,

Over the past 20 years I have had the good fortune to work with some of the world’s leading coaches – coaches of world record holders and Olympic Gold Medallists, coaches who have won football premierships and led national teams to international glory. Whilst all great coaches are unique and very special individuals, there are some common factors – some common championship coaching characteristics that they all share.

1. A commitment to continuous improvement.
2. A belief that anything is possible.
3. An understanding of where your sport has been (history of the sport), where it is now and most importantly a vision for where it is going.
4. The confidence to be yourself – to be unique.
5. The energy to work hard consistently.
6. The strength and courage to not compromise.
7. Outstanding communication abilities.
8. An understanding of who you are, what you value and what motivates you.
9. A passion for winning – a desire to be the best.
10. The capacity to persevere and persist and continue to fight hard no matter what obstacles you face.

Explosive Training in Sports: A Review

Explosive Training in Sports: A Review
Bruce-Low S, Smith D. Explosive Exercises In Sports Training: A critical Review.
JEPonline 2007;10(1):21-33.

This paper reviews evidence relating to the effectiveness and safety of explosive exercises, such as Olympic style weight lifting, other weight training exercises performed at a fast cadence, and plyometric exercises, that are commonly used in the strength and conditioning training of athletes. Contrary to popular belief and the practices of many athletes, the peerreviewed evidence does not support the view that such exercises are more effective than traditional, slow and heavy weight training in enhancing muscle power and athletic performance. In fact, such exercises do not appear to be any more effective in this regard than weight training at a relatively slow cadence, and some evidence suggests they are less so. Also, such explosive exercises do not transfer well (if at all) to athletic performance on the sports field, and present a significant injury risk. Therefore, such exercises should not be recommended in the strength and conditioning training of athletes, except those who need to learn the specific skill of lifting heavy weights fast, such as Olympic lifters and strongmen.

Strength and conditioning training is now an integral part of athletic preparation for all serious athletes and sports teams. However, the issue of how best to train to prepare for athletic competition is very controversial. Issues such as volume and frequency of training, choice of exercise and movement cadence are debated by athletes, coaches and exercise scientists.

One of the most controversial issues in this field is the use of ‘explosive’ exercises to increase strength and power. These can be defined as “resistance exercises characterized by maximal or near-maximal rates of force development or by high acceleration” (1). Typical examples of such exercises, commonly prescribed by strength coaches, are Olympic-style lifts such as the clean and jerk and snatch, and derivatives of these such as the power clean and hang clean.

Also, so-called ‘plyometric’ exercises defined as “maximal, all out quality efforts in each repetition of exercise” (2, p.69), as well as performing any weight training exercises at a relatively fast cadence, are popularly believed to be effective in enhancing strength, power and the rate of force development. This is based on the fact that muscle fiber composition provides the potential for the neuromuscular system to produce fast speeds, in particular fast twitch fibers. However, the selective recruitment of muscle fiber types is impossible (3). As such, muscle fibers are recruited by the nervous system in a logical progression according to the force requirements and not the speed of movement (3). For example, slow twitch fibers meet the demands of low muscular intensity, whereas the fast twitch fibers are eventually recruited when the other fatigue resistant fibers are exhausted. Therefore slow twitch fibers are recruited first and fast twitch last and there is no definitive proof that undertaking explosive tasks will by-pass this process (3). Interestingly, Fleck & Kraemer (5) suggest that there are exceptions to the recruitment order by size when very high velocity movements are undertaken, although they provide no research data to support this claim.

The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA), a prominent certification organization, recommends all of the above exercises for adult athletes (1). In addition, a recent position statement of the American College of Sports Medicine (6) suggested that explosive lifting was an effective way to enhance athletic performance. Many popular strength and conditioning textbooks also support this statement (e.g. 5). However, this view is not universal, and some authors advise athletes to avoid power cleans and other Olympic lifts due to question marks over both their effectiveness and safety (e.g. 3, 7). Indeed, two recent reviews (8, 9) have claimed that the research support for explosive training protocols is equivocal at best.

Somewhat surprisingly (given the importance of this topic for exercise scientists, strength and conditioning professionals and coaches) the peer-reviewed empirical research on this topic has never been systematically and comprehensively examined in a paper devoted purely to this purpose. Therefore, the aim of the current review is to examine the effects of explosive training protocols, including Olympic lifts and their derivatives, plyometrics and other weight training exercises performed with a relatively fast cadence on muscle strength, power and sports performance.

The evidence relating to the effects of these methods on muscle strength and power compared to slow and controlled weight training, the transfer of such training to enhanced performance on the sports field, and the injury risks from such training, will be examined. Evidence-based recommendations will then be given regarding the use of such training protocols to enhance sporting performance. The studies discussed in this review were discovered via a comprehensive literature search that included searches of relevant databases as well as searches of recent exercise physiology journals, searches of the reference lists of all the articles read, and internet searches.


Given the rather strident manner in which many weight training authorities promote the use of explosive exercises (e.g. 1), it seems reasonable to assume that a strong body of scientific evidence must have been built up to support their use. However, one of the most striking results of our literature search was the relatively small number of studies that have actually tested the effects of explosive exercises, and the even smaller number of studies that have compared their effects to that of the slow, controlled weight training advocated by some authors (3, 10, 11). However, the studies that have been completed have produced some very interesting findings. For example, LaChance and Hortobagyi (12) compared the effects of repetition cadence on the number of push-ups and pull-ups subjects could complete. They found that subjects could complete fewer repetitions when performing two-second concentric and two-second eccentric muscle actions than when performing fast, self-paced repetitions, and that they could complete even fewer repetitions when performing twosecond concentric and four-second eccentric contractions. Therefore, the difficulty of the exercise decreased as repetition cadence decreased. For example, subjects performed 96% more pull-ups in 16% less time, and 145% more push-ups in 51% less time, when performing the fast repetitions than when performing repetitions with a 2/4 cadence. This suggests that faster repetitions involve less muscle tension, making it difficult to see how a faster speed of movement could be more productive.

The findings of Hay et al. (13), who measured joint torque in three males while performing biceps curls, also seem to support this view. Hay et al. (13) found that with short duration lifts (<>
It has been argued that, because most sports involve the performance of high-velocity muscle contractions, weight training exercises performed at a high velocity will better prepare athletes for sports performance than slow weight training. This argument, often stated in weight training textbooks (17, 5), was summed up thus by Cissik (18): “If an exercise is performed at slow speeds, then we become stronger at slow speeds. However, there is little transfer to faster speeds. If exercises are performed at faster speeds, then we become stronger at faster speeds” (p. 3). To examine the effects of specific aspects of athletes’ training programs, such as repetitions cadences, on sports performance is not easy, as there are so many potential confounding factors. However, various studies have examined the effects of explosive and non-explosive training protocols on dependent measures thought to be more closely related to sports performance than measures of muscle strength. This section will examine findings from these studies. It is important to note, however, that whereas some of these measures do appear to have face validity (e.g. measuring kayak sprint performance in kayak performers), there is little or no evidence to support the ecological validity of some of them. For example, as Carpinelli (19) noted, despite its widespread acceptance, the vertical jump has not been shown to correlate well with performance of any sport-specific activity. An interesting study that did use a measure that appears to possess good ecological validity was that of Liow and Hopkins (20), who investigated the effect of slow and explosive weight training on kayak sprint performance. The two programs differed only by the time it took to undertake the concentric action of the movement (slow – 1.7 seconds and explosive - <>0.05) in torque measurements for hip extension and flexion, or 1 RM for the squat or sprint performance between the slow and explosive training groups.

Given the importance of the issue of transfer of training, Baker and Nance’s study investigating the relationship between Olympic lifting and sprint performance (22) was particularly interesting. Using trained Australian rugby league players (n = 20) they observed only weak correlations between hang clean and sprint performance (r = -0.34 for 10m sprints and r = -0.24 for 40m sprints). Therefore, the coefficients of determination (r 2) of .12 and .06 show that only 12% and 6% of the variance in the 10m and 40m sprint respectively are associated with hang clean performance. In practical terms, therefore, this shows that the assumption that there is considerable transfer from Olympic style lifting to sprint performance is incorrect; in fact, there is very little.

Several interesting studies have compared the effects of various types of explosive training, slow weight training and plyometric training (a type of training aimed at enhancing the ability of body structures to perform the stretch-shortening style, often involving depth jumps and other explosive exercises). Wilson et al. (23) compared the effects of traditional resistance training (3-6 sets of 6-10 RM squats), plyometric training and explosive training (loaded jump squats), performed twice/week for 10 weeks with experienced trainees. The traditional and explosive groups improved peak power equally on a 6 s cycle test. Both groups also increased significantly on vertical and counter-movement jump, with the explosive group increasing to a greater degree. However, the explosive group had been practicing jumping and the traditional group had not, so this was to be expected. Only the traditional group increased significantly on maximal knee-extension force. In a follow-up study, Wilson et al. (24) compared the effects of traditional weight training (squats and bench presses) with plyometric training (depth jumps and medicine ball throws). Fourteen variables related to strength and power were tested, and the traditional group increased significantly on seven variables whereas the plyometric group increased only on three. Also, both groups increased significantly on countermovement jump, with no significant between-group difference. Similarly, Holcomb et al. (25) compared the effects of resistance training and plyometric-style training involving various types of depth jump, finding no significant between-group differences in increases in jump height or power performance. These authors concluded that plyometric training was no more effective for increasing power than traditional resistance training.

Tricoli, Lamas, Carnevale and Ugrinowitsch (26) claimed that combining heavy resistance training with Olympic weightlifting improved a broader range of performance measures when compared to combining heavy resistance training with vertical jump training. The study observed increases in performance as measured by changes in a battery of tests that included sprinting (10m and 30m), agility, squat jump, countermovement jumping and half squat 1RM. However, this paper only produced two significant between-group differences, i.e. that the weightlifting group improved their 10m sprint times by 3.66% and the squat jump by 9.56% (p<0.05)>
In a review of strength training Delecluse (28) also observed that strength training is very important to increasing sprint performance when used appropriately. Delecluse (28) continues that a combination of 3 training methods is most beneficial to enhancing sprint performance 1) heavy traditional resistance training (which is classified as hypertrophy and neural activation training) 2) speed strength training (e.g., plyometrics) and 3) sprint associated training (e.g., over-speed and hindered running). Although this may be the case according to Delecluse (28), the article concludes by admitting that the design of a training programme for elite level sprinters is about being individual to the client’s needs and as such appears to be impossible to produce a ‘one fits all’ and ‘instant’ training programme.
Sleivert, Backus and Wenger (29) compared traditional to Olympic style lifting over a period of 8 weeks. Their results produced significant increases in 10 RM values (although neither groups showed transfer of these gains to isometric or isokinetic strength or rate of torque development) and increased cycle ergometer power output. However, there were no significant differences between the groups suggesting there is little difference in adaptation to traditional weight training compared to Olympic style lifting.
More recently Harris, Stone, O’Bryant, Proulx and Johnson (30) reported that there appears to be little effect of resistance training on performance (in particular sprint performance) supporting the concept that Olympic lifting (for example) does not increase sports performance. Harris et al. (30) compared traditional weight training, explosive training and a combination of the both to ascertain the most effect training method to enhance power as measured by a selection of field tests (vertical jump (VJ), vertical jump power, Margaria-Kalamen power test, 30-m sprint, 10-yd shuttle run, and standing long jump). When the groups were compared, the combination group improved their 10 yard shuttle times (2.4%) significantly (p<0.05)>
In addition, research by Toji, Suei and Kaneko (31) investigated the differences when training was performed by adult collegiate athletes using five repetitions at 30% maximum strength (Fmax) followed by five isometric contractions (100% Fmax) and compared to five repetitions at 30% Fmax and five contractions undertaken at high speed with no load (0% Fmax) on the elbow flexor muscles.
Training was performed 3 days a week for 11 weeks, producing significant increases in maximum power for both groups after this period of training. However, the power increase was significantly greater in the elbow flexor muscles when isometric contractions were used compared to the explosive unloaded exercises. The results from Toji et al (31) suggest that isometric training at maximum strength (100% Fmax) is a more effective form of training to increase power production than no load training at maximum velocity.
Interestingly, Moore, Hickey and Reiser (32) observed significant (p<0.05)>
This is further supported by the findings of Tuomi, Best, Martin and Poumarat (33) who investigated the effects of comparing weight training only (WTO) and weight training combined with jump training (WTC) for a 6 week training programme. Their results showed both groups increased their maximal force/explosive force after the training regime. However, the group combining weight training and jump training were the only group to significantly increase their jump height performance during the countermovement jump. Their results suggest that a change in maximal strength and/or explosive strength does not necessarily cause changes in combined movement patterns such as the stretchshortening cycle.
Newton and McEvoy (34) compared the effect of slow, controlled resistance training and explosive medicine ball throws in Australian baseball players. Only the resistance training group significantly increased throwing velocity, and this group also increased 6 RM bench press to a significantly greater degree than either the explosive group or control group. Interestingly, there was no significant difference between these latter two groups. This finding should not be a surprise to exercise physiologists, given that muscles produce greater power at slower speeds of movement (35).
Possibly the most interesting study to compare the effects of resistance training and plyometric-style (depth jumping) exercises was performed by Clutch, Wilton, McGowan and Bryce (36). In this study, half the subjects were members of a weight training class and the other half were volleyball players. Subjects were divided into four groups: a resistance training only group, a resistance training and depth jumping group, a volleyball playing and resistance training group, and a volleyball playing, resistance training and depth jumping group. All groups significantly increased vertical jump after 16 weeks of training, with the exception of the group that only did resistance training. There were no significant differences among the other three groups. The authors concluded that depth jumping provided no additional benefit to performing resistance training and practicing the specific skills involved in volleyball. Therefore, it appears that the only training necessary to optimize performance of a specific skill is the performance of that skill and separate resistance training. This finding was supported by Kotzamandis, Chatzopoulos, Michailidis, Papaiakovou, Patikas (37) who observed that increases in performance (measured by 30m sprint) were significantly greater when subjects combined resistance training with sprint training when compared to just weight training. This suggests that sprint training will obviously increase sprint performance more than when subjects just strength train. However, Kotzamanidis and colleagues (37) failed to observe the effects of comparing weight training only versus sprint training only. This would have been important to show whether the most effective method was the sprint training, the strength training or a combination of the both.
Cronin and Hansen (38) investigated strength and power as predictors of sports speed. They observed that the fastest players in their squad of professional rugby league players over 5, 10 and 30 meters tended to jump higher in the countermovement jump and jump squat. They conclude that specific sport speed can be best trained through plyometric training and loaded jump squats. However, this conclusion appears very premature given that the study did not actually examine the effects of such training methods.
The transfer of gains made in training to actual sports performance was investigated by Cronin, McNair and Marshall (39). They showed that undertaking two forms of explosive training (bungy squat jumps and non-bungy squat jumps) improved the ability to squat jump with greater power, but this did not transfer to improved performance measured by agility performance. Hoffman, Cooper, Wendell and Kang (40) also observed no increases in performance (measured by agility, 40 yard sprint, 1RM bench press, vertical jump and vertical jump power) after a 15 week Olympic weightlifting training programme. This is particularly interesting given the high popularity of Olympic lifts for the purposes of enhancing athletic performance. That is not to say that Olympic weightlifting does not improve strength and power; of course it does, as Gonzalez-Badillo, Izquierdo and Gorostiaga (41) clearly showed that this form of training increased their subjects’ ability to Olympic-lift more weight. Others have found this form of training more valuable than power lifting (40) when increasing the ability to squat a greater amount of weight. Our point is, however, that the evidence suggests that those not involved in weightlifting, powerlifting or strongman-type events will derive little or no benefit from performing such lifts.
Overall, therefore, given the high popularity of explosive exercises amongst athletes, and the enthusiastic recommendations given by some exercise certification organizations (1, 3) for athletes to perform such exercises, it is surprising that there exists virtually no evidence that these types of exercises are any more effective than traditional, slow weight training in enhancing sports performance. Indeed, some of the studies above suggest that slow weight training is actually more effective in this regard. One other criticism that has been made of explosive exercises, however, is that they may be associated with a greater risk of injury than slow weight training (5, 10). Therefore, the following section will examine this contention.

It appears that not only is ‘explosive’ weight training unnecessary for increasing muscle power, but also such training poses considerable injury risks. Many authors have expressed concerns regarding the relatively great initial and terminal stresses on the involved tendons, ligaments and muscle fascia that explosive training produces. For example, Kulund (42) noted that injuries to the wrist, elbow and shoulder were commonplace when individuals performed fast, Olympic-style lifting. Rossi and Dragoni (43) observed that of the 390 cases of lumbar spondylolysis from their 3132 subject cohort, 22.68% occurred as a result of weightlifting. Hall (44) found that fast lifting speeds greatly increased shear forces in the lumbar region. Also explosive lifting can apparently lead to spondylolysis (45, 46).
For example, Kotani et al. (45) found that 30.7% of a sample of weightlifters, all of who performed explosive lifts, suffered from this problem. Reeves et al. (47) found that 36% of weight lifters had spondylolysis compared to 5% of the normal population; in Duda’s (46) study of Olympic lifters, the figures were 44% and 4.2% respectively. In a study of weight training injuries in football players, Risser et al. (48) found that 60% of their sample who performed Olympic-style lifts suffered from low back problems, compared to only 14.3% of athletes who did not perform such movements. Konig and Biener (49) noted that 68% of their sample of Olympic lifters had suffered an injury as a result of their weight lifting, and 10% of these required at least 4 weeks’ recovery before being able to return to lifting weights. Granhed and Morelli (50) also found that 46% of retired weight lifters had physical problems caused by their lifting. Bryzcki (51) even cites the case of an experienced athlete who fractured both of his wrists when attempting a power clean.
A case study by Crockett et al. (52) described the case of an NCAA division 1 basketball player who suffered from a sacral stress fracture as a result of compressive forces generated down the spine as a result of performing explosive exercises on a commercial jumping machine. Though use of the machine had apparently enabled the athlete to improve his vertical jump, the very serious injury prevented him from playing entirely.
The above studies are hardly attractive advertisements for the benefits of explosive training. Of course, any weight training program involves some risk of injury, such as minor strains and sprains, but the major injuries noted above should not be considered acceptable when one of the main justifications for strength and conditioning training in athletes is that it reduces injury risk. Greater structural strength makes a structure less likely to be damaged when forces are exerted against it, and therefore strength training can be of great value for injury prevention. This has been shown quite graphically in research examining the effect of specific exercise for the lumbar spine on the incidence of low back injury (53). Interestingly, in this study and others using slow weight training to prevent and rehabilitate low back problems, almost no training-related injuries have been reported (54, 55, 56), in contrast to the explosive exercise studies noted above. Some have argued that the risks of injury inherent in explosive lifts are simply part and parcel of the injury risks of competing in sports (4).
However, when individuals are already participating in potentially injurious activities, to add other dangerous activities to their training schedule hardly seems justified, especially when there is no evidence that such activities will aid them in any way. Of course, Olympic weightlifters and strongmen, whose sports involve completing explosive lifts, will have to train with such lifts, as this is central to their sport. Such individuals need to accept injury risk from explosive lifts as an occupational hazard. However, athletes in other sports do not need to, and in our opinion should not, accept the risks of performing such lifts; they are simply unnecessary for all other athletes.
From the evidence presented, therefore, we contend that as well as being unnecessary to enhance performance, (indeed the evidence simply does not support the idea that explosive exercises improve sporting performance), advocating explosive lifting is questionable from an ethical standpoint as such training may cause injury. The NSCA (1) and ACSM (6) guidelines are rather ironic in this respect, given that one of the main benefits of strength training is (or at least should be) a reduction in injury risk (57).
Explosive exercise, including Olympic lifts and variations of these, plyometric-style training, and traditional weight training exercises performed with a very fast cadence, are very popular with athletes, and are advocated by many self-proclaimed experts in the field of strength and conditioning.
It is often claimed that such exercises translate better into enhanced sporting performance compared to weight training with a slow cadence. However, as we have shown, there is little evidence that these training techniques are effective in enhancing athletic performance, and no evidence that they are more effective than relatively safe, slow weight training. In fact, some studies suggest that slow weight training may be more effective in enhancing strength and power. Also, there is considerable evidence that explosive exercises pose considerable injury risks: we contend that these risks are ethically unacceptable. As such we recommend that, as supported by the literature, a training regime that encompasses slow, controlled weight training in combination with the sport specific training is all that is necessary to enhance both muscle strength and power and in turn improve actual sporting performance.
Address for correspondence: Bruce-Low S, PhD, Sports Science Department, Southampton Solent University, Southampton, Hampshire, United Kingdom, SO14 0YN. Phone (+44) 2380 319272; FAX: (+44) 2380 337438; Email.

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Wednesday, September 30, 2009

Sport Psychology for Junior Rowers

Psychological Skills and Rowing Performance
Sport Psychology for Junior Rowers
By Dr Greg Mondon Presented at the 2000 US Rowing Convention
What percentage of rowing is mental? What percentage of mistakes you’ve made in practice or competition were “mental” mistakes? How much of your practice time do you spend on mental skills?

Your answers to these questions will help you determine whether you need to improve your mental approach to rowing. All sports performance is 100% mental. Your body litarally does not move a muscle without input from your brain. Negative emotional states, anxiety, fear, poor concentration, tension, pain, and outside distractions all interfere with performance.

Elite athletes already know this fact. They have developed, and consistently practice the mental skills needed for optimal performance.

Mental skills are just one part of the performance triad. Physical factors include conditioning and nutrition. Tactical factors include technique and race strategy. Mental skills are the psychlogicasl tools athletes can use to enhance their learning, training, and performance. These skills do not replace physical training, but the can help you ti increase your ability to stay focused, handle adversity, control tension and anxiety, and stay confident in your abilities when performing under pressure.

Once you have developed a program of skills and tools you can use to improve your performance, all you have to do is…

Skills for Finding Peak Performance
Developing skills in the following areas can help you consistently achieve a mental state that is ripe for peak performance.

Self Awareness of ones strengths, limitations, thoughts and feelings teaches you about your performance and yourself.
Clear Goals that focus primarily on the process of performance rather than the outcome.
Energy Management Skills allow you to regulate your energy, aousal, and tension. Learn and practicing effective relaxation and “psyching up” strategies.
Imagery Skills, when done effectively can enhance technique development, competition preparation, and self confidence.
Cognitive Skills such as self talk, focusing skills, and cue words can help you handle distractions and stay in the present.

Once learned these skills can be applied to any performance situation. This program of mental skills will include an honest assessment and evaluation of your current mental strategies and your commitment to improving.

Set “SMARTER” Goals for Better Performnce
What is your mission for the coming competitive season? What vision do you have for the success you want to achieve? What do you like about rowing competitively? What are you going to do today to accomplish this mission?

Top athletes have learnt to stay motivated and focused through a long season, through winter conditioning and through those periods where things just don’t seem to be going their way. One of the tools they use is goal setting. There are a few basic principles to use when setting goals.
OUTCOME GOALS focus on results. Winning a race or qualifying for a regional or national event are outcome goals. These goals can motivate and guide you, but they are not completely under your control.
PROCESS GOALS are the action goals that focus on specific aspects of performance. Process goals are what you fall back on day-tp-day, week-to-week to stay focused. These goals are the core of your mental game.

Use this guide when setting your goals.
S – Specific
M – Measurable
A – Action-oriented
R – Realistic
T – Timely
E – Exciting
R – Recorded

Specific gaols describe exactly what you want to occur. What do you have to do in order to row fast (i.e. what is the process gaol for rowing fast)? That should be your goal. For example, a goal of moving to the start line feeling confident and relaxed (which shall enable you to row better) is more specific that saying, do my best.
Measurable goals can be objectively measured by you or by someone else. Using the above example, you can rate your feeling of confidence and relaxation on a 1-10 scale. Some athletes choose to monitor their pulse as a way of tracking their tension level.
Action-Oriented means that your goal dictates that you do something to achieve an end. Example, if you’re not relaxed at the start line, taking a deep breath and using your self-talk to calm down.
Realistic goals look for a balance between ability and challenge. Easy goals wont motivate you and goals that are too difficult will discourage you.
Timely eans keeping focused on something current that is related to your goal. If your goal is nationals in May, have intermediate, short term and daily goals that take you there.
Exciting! Set goals that have some meaning for you. Let yourself feel good about your performance without regard to outcome.
Record your goals in your mental log. Review. Evaluate and adjust them as needed.

More Goals Setting Basics
Here are some more tips to follow when setting goals.
· Remember that goal setting is a process that takes time, thought and effort. Try to avoid coming up with all your goals in one night.
· Be flexible. If a goal isn’t working make an adjustment.
· Make your goal public. Tell mom, dad, friends, coaches and teammates. Be sure to tell people who will be supportive of your working towards your goals.
· Focus on process goals that are related to directly improving your performance.
· Set goals for practice and competition.
· Use positive language. Only state what you want to do (row well) instead of what you want to avoid (don’t catch a crab).

The Most Important Goal
The absolute most important goal you cans set yourself is self acceptance. No matter how you perform this season, no matter what anybody says about you or your performance, make it your personal goal to accept yourself as a worthy person.

Time Frame for Goal Setting
Long Term goals cover the season or the year. You’ll only need one or two.
Intermediate Goals should cover a week, a month, or a pre season
Short term goals are clear specific and action orientated process goals covering 2-4 days
Daily goals. What are you doing today to achieve your vision? What are you doing right now?

Make fun your goal too!!!

The 2000m Erg Test

The 2000m Erg Test
By Walter Martindale, M.P.E., ChPC, Coach Development Manager, Rowing New Zealand
Some suggestions for coaching athletes to a best performance. Unfortunately, to be thorough, this gets a bit long… The “basics” of getting a great ergometer test are in “bold” font, like this. The rest of the document provides a “not quite layman’s” description of the “why” behind the basics.

Recent observations of 2000 m ergometer tests have prompted a selector to ask that club and school coaches learn how to prepare an athlete to take an ergometer test. We saw some very heroic starts, followed by struggles to survive.

So – to that end – a primer on taking an ergometer test, with some of the physiology about why these suggestions should help. It’s directed mostly at the athlete, but coaches can relay this information, or just stick to the basics. This is NOT the only way to “take” an ergometer test, but it’s an approach that’s based on physiology, some experience, and some observations.

First, let’s talk about the common statement that ergometers don’t float. Of course they don’t float. That’s not what the ergometer test is about. People who make boats move fast almost always have good ergometer scores – people who have good ergometer scores don’t necessarily make boats move fast. With good technique, they can move a boat fast, but with bad technique, they won’t go as fast as someone who doesn’t quite pull as hard but has good technique. If you aim to have both good technique and a good erg score, you’ll have a better chance to be the fastest in a boat. The ergometer test is simply a snapshot of your physical fitness and toughness, and can tell a coach or a selector a lot about you. The monitor on an ergometer tells the truth – no matter how hard you think you’re pulling, the numbers show you just how effective the efforts are being. After the ergometer test, if you are going through a selection process, no matter at what level, you start off on a better footing if you have cranked out a big ergo score. When you’re training on an ergometer, the more closely you can approximate good technique on the ergometer, the more beneficial carry-over you’ll have to the boat.

The ergometer test is just like the A final of a big regatta.
People need to warm up adequately, run a “race plan” and afterwards do a proper “row down.”

Basic Physiology for coaches and athletes.
Some basic physiology that explains why a good warm-up is important. Biochemists and physiology researchers beware: this is phrased so that non-physiology people can get it. If the following description is badly flawed, I’d like a physiologist to let me know so I can fix it. If the description is a good “glossing over” of what happens, but not complete, I’d like that confirmed. The description is “AIUI” or As I Understand It, from tertiary courses in exercise physiology from the 80s and Level 4 coaching courses in the 90s.

There are three main “energy supply systems” in your muscles. These are called various names by various physiology people, but what will be used in this paper is: “Anaerobic Alactic”, Anaerobic Lactic” and “Aerobic.” The names are based on the chemistry that goes on in the muscle cells, and this naming system is just one. Some characteristics of these systems will be outlined below.

There’s a whole lot of physiology that goes on when a muscle contracts, from the person deciding to move, to the brain deciding which muscles to use, through the nerves to the muscles which get a signal to contract. There is a lot of “stuff” that is still being researched about muscle physiology, but the overall process is relatively well documented. The details are far beyond the scope of this paper (and my knowledge). The “action” chemical in a muscle is called ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate). Essentially, the ATP, by splitting off one of the phosphates to become Adenosine DiPhosphate+Phosphate+energy (ADP+P+energy), and giving the energy from that split to the muscle fibre, makes the muscle fibre “pull,” making the body move. A resting muscle carries enough ATP for about 4-5 seconds of full-out work, before something else has resupply the ATP. When starting up, the ADP then gets restored to ATP by another system (Creatine Phosphate, or CP) but which only carries enough supply in the muscle for about 10-15 seconds of energy supply to the muscle. It’s called the “Anaerobic Alactic” system because it produces muscle contraction without using oxygen (anaerobic) and without making lactates (alactic).

When a person starts any physical activity cold, the first 10-15 seconds is done on this “anaerobic alactic” energy system – the muscles contract through the conversion of ATP into ADP+P+energy, and the ADP is restored to ATP with a P from CP until the supply of CP essentially runs out. During the time the Alactic system is supplying energy, the “Anaerobic Lactic” (works without oxygen, and does produce lactate) system is starting to supply energy so that the person can continue working at almost the same pace as with the Anaerobic Alactic phase of the session.

One difficulty is that no matter what you’re doing, at whatever effort level, at the start of a session, the “aerobic” system of energy production is essentially asleep. When it’s “warmed up” it produces about 80% of the energy needed for racing, but when it’s cold, it produces nearly nothing – so ALMOST ALL of the energy for the first three to five minutes of ANY activity is “anaerobic” – and causes lactate production.

After about three to five minutes of activity, the aerobic system “realises” (yes, it’s an energy system and shouldn’t be anthropomorphised) it’s going to be needed and starts producing energy, AND, if the work rate is low enough, it starts to use as an energy supply some of the lactate that was produced during the early “anaerobic lactic” part of the exercise – (essentially turning the lactate back to pyruvate, and running it through the TCA cycle and the electron
transport system) – for non-physiology people, suffice to say that the lactates get burned off.

So – after about 10 minutes of activity, your aerobic system is “up and running” and will have burned off most of the lactates produced in the first few minutes of the exercise session (warm-up).

Then, you can do some short sprints of about 10 strokes that activate your nervous system, and not worry too much about accumulating lactates because your body will be using them up again when you bring the pace back down, AND you won’t be going for long enough to cause lactate to start to accumulate and diffuse from the muscle into the blood stream.

Warming up
A warm up should last long enough to get someone starting to sweat on a relatively cool day. If you time your warm up just right, you get to sit still for about 2-3 minutes before you start your race. And – it’s a good idea to sit dead still for about 2-3 minutes before the race – oops – ergometer test. It’s NOT a good idea to sit still for more than about 5 minutes because your body starts to shut down energy systems that it “thinks” aren’t being used any more.

Why all this palaver about lactates and sitting still?
Imagine starting a race without the aerobic system “warmed up.” Because nothing is “warmed up,” your body produces that initial surge of lactate mentioned above, but because you’re racing, your body doesn’t have a chance to clear it off after the aerobic system gets going – because the aerobic system is not producing enough energy even at it’s maximum rate to satisfy the energy needs of the race. To keep up with the energy required for race-pace rowing your anaerobic system has to fill up the shortfall. So – not only are you working REALLY HARD, but you’re making heaps of lactate in your muscle fibres. When your aerobic system finally does get warmed up, your muscles are already choking in “lactates” and you’re accumulating more with every stroke you take. About 3 minutes into the race… er… ergometer test… you feel as if someone has dropped a very large piano on your head – or you wish someone would do that to put you out of your misery. Lactates, over a certain concentration, interfere with muscle contraction, and interfere with the production of more energy – I think it’s one of those evolutionary protective mechanisms that keep you from turning your muscles into an acid pool that eats itself up. “Ergo” – you need to warm up properly for an ergo-test.

The reason for wanting to sit still for 2-3 minutes before starting a test is the Anaerobic Alactic recovery time – when you stop (STOP) moving, your body somehow knows to replenish the energy supply of the ATP-CP system in a big hurry – so you get very nearly complete recovery of the ATP-CP system in 2-3 minutes of REST (this time it’s not Active Rest).

Here’s a suggestion to make your warm up and your race most effective.
Practice good “pre race” nutrition – A regular meal is OK if it’s about 3-4 hours before you start, with the size and greasiness of the meal being reduced, the closer you get to start time. Try to eat very little if anything in the last hour before you race – you want your stomach to be empty before racing, partly so that the stomach doesn’t take any excess blood flow away from your (soon to be) working muscles – and – you don’t want anything in your stomach to come back up to meet you during or shortly after your ergometer test .
Jog for about 5 minutes. Spend about 5 minutes loosening and doing a little stretching to ensure you have full range of motion.
Get on an ergometer – set the drag factor to that which you test at – in NZ it’s 130 for men, 110 for women.
Row 5 minutes at YOUR U2 pace.
Row 5 minutes at YOUR U1 pace.
Stop for a moment, adjust clothing. Row lightly to keep the aerobic system going, and practice two starts, with light rowing between them.
Somewhere, (with or without a start) do a couple of 10-15 stroke “bursts”, but make sure you have at least 10 minutes remaining before your race starts, after the last burst.
Row lightly for 5 minutes after the last 10-15 stroke burst.
With 5 minutes before your start, row lightly for a minute, and then stop – if you need to secure a heart rate chest strap, do it now. If you feel thirsty, dampen your mouth with some water – if you drink water from mid-warm up on, that water will most likely still be in your stomach when you finish your race. (If you’re thirsty during your warm up, you’re dehydrated, and should have been looking after that before warming up. Anything you drink in the 10-15 minutes before you test will most likely not be through your stomach and absorbed into your blood stream before you start, unless you’re consuming a properly formulated sports drink, AND your body is prepared for quickly absorbing fluids, AND you don’t have a “nervous” stomach. A “nervous” stomach essentially shuts down fluid absorption, and lets you see what you’ve eaten or drunk, later.) Learn to recognise the difference between being thirsty and wanting to moisten your mouth and throat because you’re nervous. Drink to prevent getting thirsty, and plan your fluids to avoid being thirsty at race time.
Report to the testing machine. Position your foot stretcher where you like it. Do NOT offer to change the vent setting – it is most likely that whoever is monitoring the test will have already checked that the drag factor is at the planned setting. You can ask to check the drag factor, but don’t even think about moving the vent until you’ve seen if the DF is off. If you are wearing a heart rate chest strap, make sure it is registering properly on whatever device will be recording.
It may or may not be a good idea to do a few strokes before you test – remember that you want to let your Anaerobic Alactic system recover so that you can start strongly, just like in a race.

That’s the warm-up and pre-race preparation.

Doing the test
START. A usual racing start – a few strokes, shorter than full length, just like in a boat.
REMEMBER TO BREATHE!!!! Most coaches have seen athletes take their first 10 strokes while holding their breath. Not a good idea. What used to work for me was to make sure I blew fully out on the first stroke, forcing me to inhale and keep breathing. Racing or testing, this may help you later in the work piece.
Take a few short, very hard strokes, to get the flywheel started.
Take MAYBE five (5) hard sprint type strokes – these will be using your Anaerobic Alactic “ATP/CP” energy system, and should not cause you problems later in the piece.
Immediately after these (maybe) five strokes, take the pace to your “body of the test” pace, and be very disciplined about staying there. You will have adrenaline and “fresh feeling” going for you early in the piece, but unless you have lots of erg test experience and years of training, it’s easy to overdo the first 500 m.
Treat the test like a race – physiologically speaking, a well trained rower will be fastest in the first 500 because they have less metabolic waste interfering with their performance than later on.
As the test progresses, you need to keep your stroke length, but your body starts to get tired, you can’t push as hard later on as you could in the first 500. So, if you want to keep from fading, you need to increase the stroke rate. Some coaches suggest one “beat” per 500 m.
The second and third 500 (aka the middle thousand) are usually slightly lower in speed because they tend to be run primarily at the “MaxVO2” pace. The closer the Anaerobic Threshold is to the MaxVO2, the faster the person will be able to make it through these two 500 metre segments. The speed profile in international racing (and top level ergometer tests) is dictated by good old muscle and cardiovascular physiology.
The last 500 m – well – how far away from the end of the race do you want to start your closing sprint? If you’re brave, you’ll start bumping the rate up gradually from 500 m out. If you’re REALLY brave, you’ll start hammering it from 600 or 700 out and hang on until you can’t see any more. If you’re more conservative, you’ll try bumping the rate from 300 out, and then complain to yourself that you didn’t start to sprint earlier.
Keep your length as well as you can, creep the stroke rate up, and see if you have energy to try to break the foot plate in the middle of each drive. Listen to the flywheel and make it zing.
At the end – when you’ve finished – try your hardest to stay upright. Most people who crash to the floor and gasp and roll about after they’ve tested are overacting – sure – they’re tired and everything hurts, but a lot more people fall off ergometers than fall out of boats at the end of a really hard 2000 m race. If you have the energy to writhe about showing off how much pain you’re in, you have enough energy to stay sitting (possibly slumped over) and breathe in lots and lots of air. Usually the person monitoring your test will assist you in getting your feet out of the stretchers, and usually there will be someone else around to help you get up on your feet again. If you pass out at the end of a test, the people around you had better be ready to catch you so that you don’t sprain an ankle or knee falling across the ergometer rail with your toe strapped in, but if you’re conscious, and can stay up, it’s a lot safer get your feet out properly.

After the test
After your test – coaches, selectors, and “testers” all know that you’re tired, hurting, and will have trouble moving, but the worst thing you can do for yourself, particularly if you have racing the next day, is sit still. As SOON AS YOU CAN MOVE again, start moving… We know very well that you don’t want to move, but you’ll be able to eventually, and you NEED to move. The best thing you can do for yourself is row an ergometer for another 15-20 minutes. Lightly – of course – at “U3” or “Active Recovery” pace – or somewhere between 40 and 60% of race speed. Yes. That’s slow.

What happens to the metabolic wastes that you produce during a race? They are cleared from your body by a variety of mechanisms. The heart muscle can use lactate as a source of energy, so it tends to take a small amount of the lactate out of the blood. The heart itself doesn’t use much blood (it has its own circulation, from the “coronary arteries,” that fill up thanks to back pressure from the other arteries after the heart’s valves have shut after the stroke. The liver clears out some of the lactate by turning it back into something useful, but again, this is a slow
process. If you just sit still after a race, and do no “AR” work, you MIGHT return to normal blood lactate levels in TWO DAYS. Not an ideal situation if you have to race the next day. Of course, it’s not really the lactate that’s the problem; it’s the fact that your muscles have become acidified by the production of the lactate that is a big part of the problem.

Rowing lightly for about 20 minutes uses up most of the lactates. When you’re working REALLY HARD, your muscles need more energy than the aerobic system can provide, and the chemical system that makes the extra energy (anaerobic glycolysis, or the anaerobic lactic system) gets “clogged” at the end of its reaction chain by the end product of the chain “Pyruvate”. So – to unclog itself, the body takes this pyruvate molecule and breaks a hydrogen molecule off it to make it into “Lactate” (plus a Hydrogen ion – which is what makes things get “acid”). The Lactate and Hydrogen float around in the muscle and diffuse into the blood stream (this isn’t exactly what happens, but that’s way beyond the need-to-know for this article). Then researchers stick you with a lancet (usually at the earlobe in RowingNZ) and test your lactate levels, but that’s another story. If you keep active, the muscles need energy. A very convenient way to make this energy available quickly is to take the lactate and hydrogen that you made while you were working very hard, smunch them back together to make Pyruvate, shove it through the TCA system and the Electron Transport System, and get a whole heap of ATP for your muscle to use while you do your “row down.” Essentially, using the muscles that produced the lactates will clear off the lactates much faster than will running or something, because the lactates are mostly in the muscles that produced them – you use the muscles, and you burn off the lactates.

To shorten the story, erging for 15-20 minutes, lightly, will make you feel about 10000% better in a much shorter time, than will sitting on your “duff” and waiting until you feel better. Counterintuitive, perhaps, but true.

Technique during an ergometer test:
Effective rowing technique is effective rowing technique – if you row “well,” and have the physical conditioning, it will show up in a good ergometer score and in good times on the water. If you are very strong, and don’t row so well, you may be able to get a good ergometer score but on water speed may suffer. If you are very good in rowing technique but not so strong, you may not get the good ergometer scores, and you won’t catch the people who row well AND have good ergometer scores.

Some people learn to row ergometers differently from how they row a boat. In some circles, this is believed to provide a better ergometer score. In other circles, people change the technique on an erg (pulling to their neck, for example) for the purpose of developing just a little more strength in the hope that it will transfer to the boat. Unfortunately, when doing a NZ selection ergometer test, this may not be to your benefit, because selectors watch you pull your test, and spend some time being judgmental about a person’s rowing potential because of what you do on the ergometer.

Having a pull that’s too low, or over your head, or looking too unconventional will probably not
help, unless you manage to “beast” the test, and pull a 5:40 for men, or a 6:40 for women.
Row as much like a boat as you can, and try to leave nothing behind – your 20 minute recovery will help you get ready for the next day’s training, trialling, or whatever comes up. Of course – if you have more time to spend doing recovery work, keep going for up to an hour, but at a low pace.

Understanding of, and experience with long-term build-up programs for high performance female and male rowers

Understanding of, and experience with long-term build-up programs for high performance female and male rowers
By Dr Theodor Korner, Rowing Association of the German Democratic Republic, Berlin August 22, 1989


1. Competition as the goal of training and long term build up
2. Factors determining performance in competition
3. The choice of training means and methods based on a physiological analysis of rowing races
4. Selection and application of training means and methods
5. Long term build up
6. Training of talented children
7. Training of talented youths
8. Training of talented juniors
9. Training of adults with a long term build up of performance
10. Long Term build up training for 18 year old novices
11. Periodization of the annual training programme
12. References
13. Abbreviations
14. Glossary

4. Selection and application of training means and methods

The physiological processes relavent to a rowing race are applied to the different forms of training depending on the selection of particular training methods:
- workouts over short distances with maximal speed, such as start sequences or speed training of maximal 10-12 strokes, are alactic. The alactic capacity is important for racing. This part of the training process is highly responsive based on a small potential that is limited by the size of energy depots and the primary involvement of FTF. Therefore this kind of training should be applied for short periods only and to a carefully dosed extent. The development of this capacity in relation to the entire competition is limited though effective in combination with the aerobic potential
- The training of the anaerobic – lactic component is also directed mainly towards competition. Although the size of the lactic ability is also limited it can be trained to a much higher degree than the alactic capacity. Lactic and aerobic capacities should be trained proportionally. As mentioned earlier, and exaggerated lactic training of the racing stages between 250m and 1000m does influence the aerobic capacity. On the other hand, a high aerobic capacity will not be utilized to its full extent during a race if it is not supplemented by anaerobic capacity.
- In the light of the entire training process the aerobic capacity is most important and determining component to be trained.

It is possible to develop aerobic capacity using different methods as can be seen from several successful crews. Although the literature suggests various stimulus thresholds for training, it is generally recommended to work around the aerobic threshold of 4mM.

In the context of this conference I was asked about methods of endurance training in the long term build up in the GDR. For more than 20 years we are practicing aerobic training in the boat in form of extensive long distance training of relatively high volume, and at the aerobic threshold (2mM lactate). The average volume of training session is about 20-25km long distance training (90-120min) with one break to turn around. The average boat speed is selected so that the athlete can keep it constant over the entire training distance. The rating is mostly between 18 and 20 strokes per min, the heart rate 140-160 per min (35-40 beats per 15 sec), and blood lactate about 2mM (Table 1)

The minor differences between different boats result from the specific character of each boat category, their difference in speed, and the resulting feature of the impulse during each stroke.

The heart rate is taken several times during a training session. Lacate levels are checked every 1-2 weeks. The coach checks the speed of the boat by seeking times at defined check points.

This type of extensive training at a steady work load requires a relatively high volume of work. If sufficient time (4-5 hours) for the recovery is allowed, it is possible to conduct two sessions of this type per day. Towards the end of the training session the average boat speed decreases slightly because the rower gets tired. The heart rate, however, remains constant at the required level. On the other hand, if the boat speed is kept constant the heart rate and lactate will ride. We have kept the heart rate constant to allow a second session a day.

As the energy basis of this type of general endurance training is primarily fat, energy stress are not depleted and replenished before the next training session. The result of such training as the aerobic threshold (blood lactate ot 2mM) are:
- highly economical performance of movements
- a well developed oxygen transport system (VO2 capacity of blood to bind oxygen)
- a well developed mitochondrial utilization of oxygen, and
- fat deposits within muscle fiber bundles (as observed by muscle biopsy).

It is important that the threshold of the stimulus is always reached in order to prevent the long distance training from becoming marathon training (Fig 12)

Training stimuli can also be directed with a change of the boat category or the structural features of the stroke (i.e. the way of giving the impulse). To try and elevate the intensity of long distance training to the anaerobic threshold (4mM lactate) results in complex consequences. During long term long distance training as a constant rating of 20-22, the boat speed increases mainly as a result of a change in the structure of the stroke (higher input of strength, change in the strength-time curve, changed usage of the various muscle fibers, higher speed during the drive). As a result, the training volume decreases and recovery times increase.

In the GDR, long distance rowing as a method to train the aerobic capacity, starts with 10-15km per training session for young talent in children’s rowing groups. Once the athletes are 14-15 years old, the volume of each training session sis increased to 20km and further until the senior age where the training volume is maintained.

The training stimulus is originates from the increasing boat speed as the result of a steadily increasing stroke efficiency. Impressive results can be achieved in competitions out of this effective long distance training and without special lactic or alactic workouts. For these reasons the alactic and lactic training generally does not start shortly before the racing season (April). The long distance training is continued throughout the racing season, Long distance training compromises about 90% of the entire work on the water while about 4% is intensive work (including races).

Some thoughts to the structural features of the rowing stroke during endurance training. Both Roth & Schwanitz examined the effect of different strength-time curves used in training on the cellular adaptations of muscles during long term, long distance training. Applying the same defined training conditions, they found four typical strength-time curves in training which they represented schematically as forms A, B, C and D (Fig 13).

The different types of impulse are characterized by equal areas and differently increasing slopes (A and B are retarded while C and D are steep). This means that although the test persons conduct the same total work or impulse. They do it using different characteristic strength-time curves. The work by Roth & Schwanitz showed that under conditions of identical cyclic movements the different strength-time curves shown in Fig 1 caused different demands on the energy supply. While the A and B type of impulse pattern had the tendency to emphasize aerobic adaptation impulse pattern C and D let to a more anaerobic adaptation.

Similar conclusions can also be drawn from experimental results addressing the demands on the oxygen transport system and the metabolism. As the slope of the strength-time curve increases, VO2 heart rate and blood lactate rise in parallel. Table 2 and Fig 14)

Dependent on the characteristics of the impulse applied during the rowing training (strength endurance training), different morphological and metabolic adaptations can occur. These adaptations take place independently of the distribution of the various muscle fiber types and the intended methodological aim.

In practical terms it is important, whether to emphasize the first or middle part of the drive, or whether the athlete trains in the single or eight. The knowledge of the above will help the coach to avoid unwanted training results.

I should not forget to mention general fitness training. All aerobic training sessions like jogging, cross country skiing, swimming or others, are organized methodically and based on the same principle of long distance rowing (2mM lactate).

The general strength endurance training takes up a special part in the training process as a whole. The exercises are characterized to train local strength endurance abilities (leg, back, and abdominal muscles). During the perpetration period we normally have 203 sessions a week. The intensity is directed by the number of repetitions of each exercise, the sum of the repetitions of all exercises, and the speed of movements. In general, there are 10-12 exercises each with 300-400 repetitions of a maximal frequency of 30reps/min. Blood lactate and hearty rate may increase slightly (up to 4mM after completion of exercises).

The above describes how the intensity of training sessions for special and general fitness influences the entire training process. It is necessary to organize and guide these complex effects in a proper way.

5. Long term build up

6. Training of Talented Children

Te first stage of the long term build up begins with the training of 10-14 yaer old children. Their training depends on their situation at school, and emphasizes:
- the early and continuous guarantee for a squad of suitably trained children through developing love and bond to rowing
- te development of rowing skills and abilities ad their application in competitions.
- The increased development of the basic, general foundations of sport as prerequisite for the later development or rowing performances (coordination, fitness and motor skills and abilities).

The annual ratio of general training to rowing training should be 60 : 40% (Table 3)

7. Training of Talented Youths

Centres for high performance (KJS) enable the coordication of sport and school. In these centrres there are two groups of athletes aged 14-15.
a) those who have been a member of the childrens rowing program and thus are more educated already in rowing, and
b) newly recruited athletes who show good general athletic condition but have not yet rowed. They have to catch up quickly with those in the first group with regards to their rowing skills and abilities. Athletes of both groups are normally at about the same level when they are 15-16 years old.

In general, athletes at this stage have to be educated further in their competitive sculling technique. Competitons are conducted in all sculling categories. More emphasis is put on the 1x and 4x. The technique for sweep rowing at a competitive level is not taught until the athletes are 15016 years old. At regattas for 16 year old rowers there only two events in sweep oar categories. Special fitness training for rowing is achieved mainly by the long distance method, with a proportion of aerobic and anaerobic training of 90:5%. Strength training is done in form of a strength endurance weight circuit. The technique for lifting maximal weights is taught with power exercises (50-60% of maximal strength). The general fitness training aims for the development of general technical sport skills, conditional and coordinative abilities. It includes gaes, joggin, calisthenics, cross country skiing, etc.

8. Training of Talented Juniors

The aim at this stage is the successful participation at national and international junior championships in the boat categories of the FISA. Athletes specialize in either sculling or sweep aor rowing when they are 17 years old.
The coaching is directed towards perfect rowing technique. In addition to their special boat category, all rowers master the 1x and 2- at the competitive level. This enables individual training and testing of rowing skills and abilities.

To develop conditional abilities, the volume of specific training increases, using long distance training as the main method. Competitions start in April. The ratio of aerobic to anaerobic training is 95 : 5%, and strength endurance takes up most of the strength training. Maximal strength training is introduced for the first time as a bloc of 4 – 6 weeks training during winter. General fitness, conditional and coordinative training is conducted all year round, especially in winter. Training means are determined as in all other age groups.

9. Training of adults with a long term build up of performance

The rates at which training demands increase are determined through permanently controlled adaptation of the stimulating levels of training volume and intensity. The GDR training system is extensive in principle. This demands a relatively extensive, medium sized stimulus. The aerobic capacity is established slowly but stable, and at a high level.

10. Long term build up of training for 18 year old novices

The following represents the main goals, methods and means of a 4 year build up program for 18-year old novices, according to experiences made in the GDR.

Training objectives for the different years:

1st Year: Build up of the technical and conditional basis for rowing at the competitive level

2nd Year: Reaching top national Senior B level, and approaching the top class at the national Senior A level

3rd Year: Stabilization of performance at the national top level, and approaching international level

4th Year: Achieving and stabilization of performance at international level

The following is an example of a build up program according to my personal experiences as a coach and that of other coaches.

Four year programme for 18 year old novices to international top class rower

First Training Season: Creating the bases for rowing technique and fitness at the competitive level

Second training season: Achieving top national class senior B, and approaching top national senior A level

Third training season: Stabilization of performances at the national top level, and approaching international level

Fourth training season: Achieving and stabilization of performance at the international level

11. Periodisation of the annual training program

The process of training and development of performance has to be planned systematically and in the long term. Such training plan needs to consider natural laws of growth and maturation of athletes, the phases of development of the athlete’s ability to perform, as well as the peak of the athlete’s performance.

The principles of periodization make use of aim oriented development of the sporting abilities towards a peak performance using the most suitable and appropriate developmental stages of the training year. Periodization considered the following:

- the developmental stage of a squad of a particular age group with regards to morphology and function
- the present level of rowing skills and abilities, as well as training means and methods required for further development
- the changing time periods in training effect on performance
- the right combination and succession of training means and methods, and
- the external conditions according to the time of the year (winter, summer, ice and day light).

Periodization of an annual training program is shown in the following example.

Example of an annual training program for Senior A (European conditions)

Both training objectives and the amount of time necessary for their achievement (see Table showing an annual training program), require that the preparation period is further sub divided into smaller sections, often referred to as macrocycles (Harre, D. Matwejew). These sections span over several weeks (meso cycle) and contain several complete micro cycles, i.e. training plans on a weekly, daily, or training sessional basis.

If there are two training sessions per day their order of succession is also important for the overall work load. Aerobic training sessions can succeed each other without any problems. An aerobic work loads following an intensive wok load (strength endurance, lactic training session) does even provide and advantage in assisting the removal of lactate. In contrast, it is not advisable to plan several successive work outs with intensive work loads (strength endurance, lactic rowing session), as both the removal of lactate and restoration of energy stores are not yet completed.

In the light of an entire training program and its periodization, the aerobic training is obviously the central part of long term and annual training processes.

Our own experiences as well as those of Matwejew, Roth and Harre, point out that the endurance capacity requires extraordinarily long-term morphological and functional changes and adaptations of the athlete. The volume and intensity of these long term processes need to be planned, secured and developed carefully, using the appropriate dosage and stimulation throughout the entire training program.

1. Korner & Schwanitz “Rudern”, Sportverlag, Berlin, 1985
2. Training von A-Z, Sportverlag, Berlin
3. Harre, D: “Trainingslehre”, Sportverlag, Berlin
4. Martejew: “Die periodisierung des sportlichen Trainings”, Sportverlag Berlin
5. Roth, W., Schwanitz, P., Pas, P.: “Untersuching zur Gestaltung differenter Kraft-Zeit-Verlaufe”, in “Medizin und Sport” 2.1987.